Pupa Gilbert

Email address: pupa@physics.wisc.edu

Room Number: 
5116 Chamberlin Hall
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Group Affiliation: 
Gilbert Group
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Ph.D. 1987, First University of Rome "La Sapienza" (Italy)

Also: Professor of Physics

pupa's picture

Research Description

Research Field: Biomineralization

The teeth of sea urchins are among the most complicated structures in the natural world. They can grind rocks, and self-sharpen with use. We studied these fascinating biominerals, revealed their complex crystal arrangement, discovered how they co-orient all their nanocrystals, and how they self-sharpen with use. The inset in the image on the left shows the cross section of one tooth, which looks a bit like a mushroom. In the higher magnification image, you can appreciate the details of imbricated minerals: the elongated structures are plates (the rounded ones are fibers) and these both are entirely made of calcite. The space between fibers and plates is completely filled by high-Mg calcite nanoparticles 10 nm in size.

Mollusk shell nacre

Nacre, or mother-of-pearl, is the layer at the inner surface of some mollusk shells and pearls (see image on the right). It has a fracture resistance 3000x greater than aragonite, the mineral of which it is composed. The toughening effect is due to well-defined nanolayers of organics at the interfaces between micro-tablets of aragonite.

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Amorphous precursor in sea urchin spicules

One of the most fascinating aspects of calcite biominerals is their intricate and curved morphology, quite different from the rhombohedral crystal habit of geologic calcite. These morphologies, as well as space-filling and greater resistance to fracture, are achieved via amorphous precursor mineral phases. We have shown that in sea urchin larval spicules two distinct phase transitions occur, 1→2 and 2→3. Both transitions are regulated by inhibiting proteins, which introduce activation barriers between states otherwise spontaneously transforming because they are energetically downhill.

Above: Cross-section of a spicule, freshly extracted from a 48-h sea urchin embryo, caught in the act of transforming from amorphous CaCO3 (R,G) to crystalline calcite (B), and imaged with XANES-PEEM spectromicroscopy. Notice the crystalline phase at the center, and the amorphous phases at the left and right edges of the spicule. Each pixel is 20 nm.

Awards and Honors

Chancellor's Distinguished Teaching Award, University of Wisconsin-Madison 2011
Elected Vice-Chair, Chair-Elect, Chair, Pst-Chair, Division of Biological Physics, American Physical Society 2010
Fellow, American Physical Society, Division of Condensed Matter Physics 2010
George and Pamela Hamel Faculty Fellow, University of Wisconsin-Madison 2008
Vilas Associate Award, UW-Madison 2006